Common Ingredients

Quality Ingredients

Premier Pharmacy purchases all active pharmaceutical ingredients directly from Verified-Accredited Wholesale Distributors (VAWD), the highest seal of approval for FDA-approved medication sourcing. VAWD accreditation plays a pivotal role in preventing counterfeit drugs from entering the US drug supply: it helps protect the public from drugs that have been contaminated, diverted, or counterfeited.


Acetylcysteine is in a class of medications called mucolytic agents. It works by thinning the mucus in the air passages to make it easier to clear the airways.


Efficacy of N-acetylcysteine on wound healing of nasal mucosa

B Yilmaz, G Türkçü, E Sengül, A Gül… - Journal of …, 2015 -

… Depending on these findings, we consider that NAC reduces the inflammatory response against the mechanic trauma in the nasal mucosa and this effect may play a crucial role in the …

N‐acetylcysteine inhibits Na+ absorption across human nasal epithelial cells

T Rochat, JS Lacroix, L Jornot - Journal of cellular physiology, 2004 - Wiley Online Library

… N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a widely used mucolytic drug in patients … NAC affects the bioelectric properties of human nasal epithelial cells. A 24-h basolateral treatment with 10 mM of NAC

Reduction of oxidative DNA fragmentation by ascorbic acid, zinc and N-acetylcysteine in nasal mucosa tissue cultures

P Baumeister, T Huebner, M Reiter… - Anticancer …, 2009 -

… zinc and N-acetylcysteine are widely … nasal mucosa, three-dimensional tissue cubes coated with ciliated epithelium, for repeated incubation with ascorbic acid, zinc and N-acetylcysteine

Effect of N-acetylcysteine on the Nasal Mucociliary Clearance in Chronic Sinusitis.

G Stafanger, H Bisgaard, M Pedersen… - European journal of …, 1987 -

N – acetylcysteine mucolytic agent in combination of antibiotic is helpful for the treatment of chronic sinusitis, which not only helps in removal of stagnated mucus by improving nasal mucociliary clearance but also help the antibiotic to be more effective.

PDR information


Acyclovir decreases the severity and length of shingle outbreaks. It helps the sores heal faster, keeps new sores from forming, and decreases pain/itching. This medication may also help reduce how long pain remains after the sores heal.


A trial of topical acyclovir in genital herpes simplex virus infections

L Corey, AJ Nahmias, ME Guinan… - … England Journal of …, 1982 - Mass Medical Soc

Acyclovir-treated patients with recurrent herpes … , acyclovir reduced the time to crusting of lesions in men but had no effect on the symptoms or healing times in women. Topical acyclovir

Infections caused by herpes simplex virus in the immunocompromised host: natural history and topical acyclovir therapy

RJ Whitley, M Levin, N Barton… - Journal of Infectious …, 1984 -

… This study demonstrates that topical acyclovir therapy accelerates three healing parameters of HSV infections in the immunocompromised host: loss of virus from lesions, resolution of …

Successful treatment of herpes labialis with topical acyclovir.

AP Fiddian, JM Yeo, R Stubbings, D Dean - Br Med J (Clin Res Ed), 1983 -

topical preparation for the treatment of recurrent herpes simplex virus infections. Oral acyclovir … of recurrent genital herpes,4 and topical acyclovir in an ointment base (polyethylene glycol…

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Amitriptyline is a tricyclic antidepressant that is widely used to treat chronic neuropathic pain (pain due to nerve damage). It has been recommended as a first-line treatment in many guidelines. Neuropathic pain can be treated with antidepressant drugs in doses below those at which the drugs act as antidepressants.


Topical amitriptyline and ketamine in neuropathic pain syndromes: an open-label study

ME Lynch, AJ Clark, J Sawynok, MJ Sullivan - The Journal of Pain, 2005 - Elsevier

Twenty eight subjects with refractory, moderate to severe peripheral neuropathic pain participated in an open label prospective trial examining perceived analgesic effect, patient satisfaction, and safety of topical amitriptyline 2%/ketamine 1% cream. Outcome measures …

Topical amitriptyline and ketamine for the treatment of neuropathic pain

S Mercadante - Expert review of neurotherapeutics, 2015 - Taylor & Francis

A neuropathy is a disturbance of function or pathological change in nerves. In some cases, peripheral neuropathic pain may occur due to a lesion or disease of the peripheral somatosensory nervous system. Efficacy of different agents for peripheral neuropathic pain

A pilot study examining topical amitriptyline, ketamine, and a combination of both in the treatment of neuropathic pain

ME Lynch, AJ Clark, J Sawynok - The Clinical journal of pain, 2003 -

Objective The involvement of ongoing peripheral activity in the generation of nociceptive input in neuropathic pain suggests that topical drug delivery may be useful as a treatment strategy. This is a pilot study providing initial information regarding the use of novel topical

Topical amitriptyline and ketamine for post-herpetic neuralgia and other forms of neuropathic pain

J Sawynok, C Zinger - Expert opinion on Pharmacotherapy, 2016 - Taylor & Francis

Introduction: Neuropathic pain (NP) has several therapeutic options but efficacy is limited and adverse effects occur, such that additional treatment options are needed. A topical formulation containing amitriptyline 4% and ketamine 2%(AmiKet) may provide such an …

Central neuropathic pain in a patient with multiple sclerosis treated successfully with topical amitriptyline

DJ Kopsky, R Liebregts… - Case reports in …, 2012 -

Central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common debilitating symptom, which is mostly treated with tricyclic antidepressants or antiepileptics. Unfortunately, the use of these drugs is often limited due to adverse events. We investigated …

Topical amitriptyline, ketamine, and lidocaine in neuropathic pain caused by radiation skin reaction: a pilot study

I Uzaraga, B Gerbis, E Holwerda, D Gillis… - Supportive Care in Cancer, 2012 - Springer

Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of topical amitriptyline, ketamine, and lidocaine (AKL) on alleviation of neuropathic pain from radiation dermatitis and the feasibility of a randomized trial. Materials and methods Eligible subjects had radiation …

Topical treatments for localized neuropathic pain

R Casale, Z Symeonidou, M Bartolo - Current pain and headache reports, 2017 - Springer

… Purpose of Review Topical therapeutic approaches in localized neuropathic pain (LNP) … effect on pain reduction. In this narrative review, we describe the available compounds for … topical amitriptyline, ketamine, and a combination of both in the treatment of neuropathic

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Anastrozole is an aromatase inhibitor that has been shown to improve testosterone levels in adult men. Aromatase inhibitors block the conversion of testosterone into estrogen and are sometimes used to lower estrogen levels in men who receive testosterone treatment.


Effects of aromatase inhibition in elderly men with low or borderline-low serum testosterone levels

BZ Leder, JL Rohrer, SD Rubin, J Gallo… - The Journal of …, 2004 -

As men age, serum testosterone levels decrease, a factor that may contribute to some aspects of age-related physiological deterioration. Although androgen replacement has been shown to have beneficial effects in frankly hypogonadal men, its use in elderly men...

Outcomes of anastrozole in oligozoospermic hypoandrogenic subfertile men

O Shoshany, N Abhyankar, N Mufarreh, G Daniel… - Fertility and sterility, 2017 - Elsevier

Objective To determine whether the change in sperm parameters in subfertile hypoandrogenic men treated with anastrozole is correlated to the magnitude of increase in testosterone (T) to estrogen ratio in men responding to treatment...

Combination therapy with clomiphene citrate and anastrozole is a safe and effective alternative for hypoandrogenic subfertile men

NJ Alder, S Keihani, GJ Stoddard, JB Myers… - BJU …, 2018 - Wiley Online Library

… Oligozoospermic men with hypoandrogenism and a low testosterone:oestradiol ratio had significantly improved endocrine and semen variables after treatment with AZ 12. While both …

Effects of aromatase inhibition on bone mineral density and bone turnover in older men with low testosterone levels

SAM Burnett-Bowie, EA McKay, H Lee… - The Journal of Clinical …, 2009 -

… In a prior 3-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 37 elderly men with low testosterone levels treated with anastrozole, we demonstrated similar increases in mean …

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L-arginine, an amino acid, is the precursor to nitric oxide (NO), a potent vasodilator that causes blood vessels to dilate. L-arginine has been shown to dilate clitoral blood vessels, increasing flow to erogenous zones and helping to improve arousal


The L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway

S Moncada, A Higgs - New England journal of medicine, 1993 - Mass Medical Soc

… stimulates the constitutive nitric oxide synthase (NOS). The nitric oxide (NO) formed from L-arginine (L… release nitric oxide, spontaneously or through an enzymatic reaction. The liberated …

L-arginine infusion promotes nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation, increases regional cerebral blood flow, and reduces infarction volume in the rat.

E Morikawa, MA Moskowitz, Z Huang, T Yoshida… - Stroke, 1994 - Am Heart Assoc

… L-Arginine (&30 mg/kg IV) increased blood flow distal to MCA occlusion by 50%. These … Changes in mean arterial blood pressure were not observed. L-Arginine (300 mg/kg IV) reduced …

Skin blood flow in patients with systemic sclerosis and Raynaud's phenomenon: effects of oral L-arginine supplementation.

F Khan, JJ Belch - The Journal of rheumatology, 1999 -

… OBJECTIVE: To measure skin blood flow responses to the iontophoresis of acetylcholine … of oral L-arginine supplementation versus placebo in patients. METHODS: Skin blood flow was …

Mayo Clinic information

Azelaic Acid

Azelaic acid is in a class of medications called dicarboxylic acids. It works to treat rosacea by decreasing the swelling and redness of the skin. It works to treat acne by killing the bacteria that infect pores and by decreasing the production of keratin, a natural substance that can lead to the development of acne.


Azelaic acid in the treatment of papulopustular rosacea: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

RH Liu, MK Smith, SA Basta… - Archives of …, 2006 -

topical 20% azelaic acid cream and 15% azelaic acid gel compared with their respective vehicles in the treatment of papulopustular rosacea… This systematic review sought to evaluate the clinical efficacy of topical 20% azelaic acid cream and 15% azelaic acid gel compared with …

Topical azelaic acid in the treatment of rosacea

AJ Carmichael, R Marks, KA Graupe… - Journal of …, 1993 - Taylor & Francis

Azelaic acid is now an established therapeutic agent for acne vulgaris, where its antibacterial and comedolytic activity is responsible in the main for its beneficial effects. In this report we describe the results of a single-centre double-blind controlled contralateral …

A comparison of topical azelaic acid 20% cream and topical metronidazole 0.75% cream in the treatment of patients with papulopustular rosacea

S Maddin - Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 1999 - Elsevier

Background: Although it is important for physicians to have sufficient clinical data on which to base treatment decisions, little comparative data exist regarding newer treatment modalities for rosacea. Objective: The goal of the study was to compare the efficacy and …

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Azelastine is an antihistamine. It works by preventing the effects of a substance called histamine, which is produced by the body. Histamine can cause itching, sneezing, runny nose, and watery eyes.


Azelastine nasal spray for the treatment of allergic and nonallergic rhinitis

F Horak, UP Zieglmayer - Expert Review of Clinical Immunology, 2009 - Taylor & Francis

… treat allergic rhinitis, azelastine nasal spray exhibits superior … azelastine and FP nasal sprays reduce symptoms in allergic rhinitis patients more than either agent alone. Azelastine nasal

Efficacy of azelastine nasal spray in patients with an unsatisfactory response to loratadine

WE Berger, MV White, Rhinitis Study Group - Annals of Allergy, Asthma & …, 2003 - Elsevier

… treatment with azelastine nasal spray 2 sprays per nostril, twice daily, azelastine nasal spray 2 … daily plus placebo (saline) nasal spray, or placebo (saline) nasal spray/placebo capsules. …

Review of azelastine nasal spray in the treatment of allergic and non-allergic rhinitis

C Lee, J Corren - Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, 2007 - Taylor & Francis

… either azelastine nasal spray monotherapy, azelastine nasal … that both the azelastine monotherapy and the azelastine plus … either azelastine nasal spray monotherapy, azelastine nasal

Azelastine nasal spray: a review of pharmacology and clinical efficacy in allergic and nonallergic rhinitis

PL Lieberman, RA Settipane - Allergy and asthma …, 2003 -

… In US clinical trials, azelastine nasal spray was … .s', azelastine nasal spray was effective in treating the total vasomotor rhinitis s_vmpt0n1 complex including individual syniptams of nasal

PDR information


Baclofen is in a class of medications called skeletal muscle relaxants. Baclofen acts on the spinal cord nerves and decreases the number and severity of muscle spasms caused by multiple sclerosis or spinal cord conditions. It also relieves pain and improves muscle movement.


Effect of topical baclofen 5% on post-hemorrhoidectomy pain: randomized double blind placebo-controlled clinical trial

S Ala, M Alvandipour, M Saeedi, M Mansourifar… - Journal of …, 2020 - Springer

Background Baclofen is an agonist for a subtype of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA-B) receptors and traditionally been used for the systemic treatment of spasticity. Topical application of baclofen has been shown to reduce pain in patients with localized …

Vulvodynia and proctodynia treated with topical baclofen 5% and palmitoylethanolamide

JMK Hesselink, DJ Kopsky, NL Sajben - Archives of gynecology and …, 2014 - Springer

… We present a case where intractable vaginal and anal pain was treated successfully with a combination of topical baclofen cream per vaginam and the neutraceutical palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) per os. The latter is an endogenous analgesic and anti-inflammatory compound, …

Topical treatments for localized neuropathic pain

R Casale, Z Symeonidou, M Bartolo - Current pain and headache reports, 2017 - Springer

… Purpose of Review Topical therapeutic approaches in localized neuropathic pain (LNP) syndromes are increasingly used by both specialists and … In both studies, topical baclofen application was shown to be effective in pain relief. Studies with a higher level of evidence are not …

Management of chronic neuropathic pain with single and compounded topical analgesics

NN Knezevic, T Tverdohleb, F Nikibin… - Pain …, 2017 - Future Medicine

… Even though the US FDA approved topical analgesics are 8%-capsaicin and 5%-lidocaine patches for treating postherpetic neuralgia, … efficacy of topical ketamine cream, clonidine gel, topical gabapentin, topical baclofen and topical phenytoin for peripheral neuropathic pain, …

Topical amitriptyline-baclofen cream for the treatment of provoked vestibulodynia

P Nyirjesy, A Lev-Sagie, L Mathew… - Journal of Lower …, 2009 -

… A topical cream containing amitriptyline 2% and baclofen 2% has recently been proposed as a therapy for vulvodynia … baclofen is used for neuropathic pain originating from cancer. If PV is primarily a disorder caused by peripheral nociceptors, topical amitriptyline and baclofen

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Beta Glucan

Beta-glucans are soluble fibers that come from the cell walls of mushrooms, plants, algae, yeasts, and oats. Because beta-glucans have antioxidant properties and are anti-inflammatory, they are excellent ingredients for improving the look of redness and other signs of sensitive skin.


Skin health promotion effects of natural betaglucan derived from cereals and microorganisms: a review

B Du, Z Bian, B Xu - Phytotherapy Research, 2014 - Wiley Online Library

… The skin health promotion potential of β-glucan used in cosmeceuticals has received little attention. In this sense, this review presents an overall profile of the skin health promotion effects of β-glucan, including anti-wrinkle, wound healing, antioxidant activity, anti-ultraviolet (UV) …

Anticancer properties of low molecular weight oat beta-glucan–An in vitro study

A Choromanska, J Kulbacka, N Rembialkowska… - International journal of …, 2015 - Elsevier

… have been widely recognized, but those polysaccharides are mostly insoluble which creates several problems especially in topical formulation. Also high … investigated the effect of β-glucan from oat on the human skin melanoma HTB-140 cells in vitro. In this study the oat β-…

β-Glucan-based cream (containing pleuran isolated from pleurotus ostreatus) in supportive treatment of mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis

M Jesenak, S Urbancek, J Majtan… - Journal of …, 2016 - Taylor & Francis

… of various skin diseases (6,7). In clinical medicine, topical application of β-glucans was successfully studied in the treatment of different skin … The novel coladerm-beta glucan membrane exhibited potential antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-…

Anti-aging skin care ingredient technologies

J Graf - Cosmetic dermatology, 2005 - Springer

Topical beta-glucans can accelerate wound healing and increase resistance to infection by enhancing macrophage-mediated … Betaglucans are extremely soothing and calming to the skin through their reinforcement of skin macrophages, which have implications in minimizing …

The magical ingredients: anti-ageing

A Vorster - South African Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Review, 2013 -

Beta-glucans are considered as a valuable asset in the battle to combat wrinkles. Oat … The study supports the use of oat betaglucan in the care and maintenance of healthy skin and the development of antiaging wrinkle reduction skincare product. The apparent increased bio- …

Beta Glucan: a 21st Century Miracle?

C Hertzog - 2013 -

… They believed that Beta Glucan’s healing and wrinkle, cellulite and other age-reducing attributes would not only enhance the effectiveness of … It contains a large number of macrophages, which can be enhanced and activated in just the same way by a topical Beta Glucan cream, …


Budesonide is used to treat certain growths in the nose (nasal polyps). It belongs to a class of drugs known as corticosteroids. Budesonide works by reducing swelling (inflammation) in the nasal passages. This can help decrease symptoms such as an itchy or runny nose, sneezing, or other symptoms caused by hay fever.


Budesonide nasal irrigations in the postoperative management of chronic rhinosinusitis

DW Jang, VA Lachanas, J Segel… - International Forum of …, 2013 - Wiley Online Library

nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF), and symptom scores were improved with commercially available budesonide nasal … with CRS who were treated with budesonide nasal spray. They, too, …

Safety analysis of long‐term budesonide nasal irrigations in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis post endoscopic sinus surgery

E Soudry, J Wang, R Vaezeafshar… - … Forum of Allergy & …, 2016 - Wiley Online Library

… both nasal steroid sprays and pulmonary steroid inhalers while using daily budesonide nasal … Rhinologists should be alerted to the potential risks of long-term use of budesonide nasal

The effectiveness of budesonide nasal irrigation after endoscopic sinus surgery in chronic rhinosinusitis with asthma

TW Kang, JH Chung, SH Cho, SH Lee… - Clinical and …, 2017 -

… The off-label use of budesonide nasal irrigation was … to figure out if budesonide nasal irrigation could reduce the … , this study showed budesonide nasal irrigation in asthma patients was …

Topical therapy with high-volume budesonide nasal irrigations in difficult-to-treat chronic rhinosinusitis

EM Kosugi, GF Moussalem, JC Simões… - Brazilian Journal of …, 2016 - SciELO Brasil

SciELO - Brasil - Topical therapy with high-volume budesonide nasal irrigations in difficult-to-treat chronic rhinosinusitis Topical therapy with high-volume budesonide nasal irrigations …

Budesonide nasal irrigation improved Lund–Kennedy endoscopic score of chronic rhinosinusitis patients after endoscopic sinus surgery

Z Huang, X Chen, J Huang, Z Wang, X Li… - European archives of …, 2019 - Springer

budesonide nasal irrigation for only 3 months after ESS, and this short-term use likely did not cause HPAA suppression. Nasal … the surgical state of the nasal and sinus cavity. During this …

Budesonide vs saline nasal irrigation in allergic rhinitis: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

N Periasamy, K Pujary… - … –Head and Neck …, 2020 -

… This study also demonstrates that budesonide nasal irrigation is a viable and efficacious option in the management of patients with persistent severe allergic rhinitis without any reported …

PDR information


Bupivacaine is in a class of medications called local anesthetics. Bupivacaine is a long-acting numbing agent that blocks the nerve impulses that send pain signals to your brain.


The effects of dexamethasone, bupivacaine and topical lidocaine spray on pain after tonsillectomy

İ Kaygusuz, N Susaman - International journal of pediatric …, 2003 - Elsevier

Objective: To compare the administration of bupivacaine hydrochloride, dexamethasone and lidocaine hydrochloride in decreasing post-tonsillectomy pain. Methods: Eighty patients were enrolled in the study in ENT Clinic, Fırat University, and in ENT Clinic Elazığ SSK …

Can post-tonsillectomy pain be reduced by topical bupivacaine? Double blind controlled trial

NS Violaris, JR Tuffin - The Journal of Laryngology & Otology, 1989 -

A double blind controlled prospective trial investigated the analgesic effect of topical Bupivacaine in 15 adult patients undergoing bilateral tonsillectomy. Each patient had one tonsillar fossa exposed to Bupivacaine 0.5 per cent solution and the other to normal saline …

A prospective double-blind randomized controlled trial of the effect of topical bupivacaine on post-operative pain in bilateral nasal surgery with bilateral nasal packs …

MA Buchanan, GR Dunn… - The Journal of …, 2005 -

To ascertain whether local anaesthetic use is of clinical benefit in nasal surgery, a prospective double-blind randomized controlled trial of topical bupivacaine on post- operative pain in patients packed after bilateral nasal surgery was carried out. Each patient …

Control of immediate postoperative pain with topical bupivacaine hydrochloride for laparoscopic Falope ring tubal ligation.

P Kaplan, R Freund, J Squires, M Herz - Obstetrics and gynecology, 1990 -

Conflicting reports exist in the literature on the effectiveness of topical local anesthetic applied to the serosal surface of the fallopian tubes for the control of immediate postoperative pain after mechanical (band or clip) tubal ligation. Sixty-four patients were …

Topical bupivacaine compared to lidocaine with epinephrine for post-tonsillectomy pain relief in children: a randomized controlled study

ÖA Özmen, S Özmen - International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology, 2011 - Elsevier

Objective To compare the topical administration of bupivacaine hydrochloride, lidocaine hydrochloride with epinephrine and saline in alleviating post tonsillectomy pain. Study design A double-blind prospective randomized controlled clinical study. Methods Between …

Topical bupivacaine in paediatric day-case tonsillectomy: a prospective randomized controlled trial

T Hung, V Moore-Gillon, J Hern, A Hinton… - The Journal of …, 2002 -

… Our study uses swabs soaked with bupivacaine to pack the tonsillar fossae. We believe this to be a safe alternative to topical in ltration. We found that the pain score was significantly lower in the bupivacaine group compared to the control group during pediatric day-case …

Topical bupivacaine for pain control following simple dental extractions

SR Greengrass, J Andrzejowski, K Ruiz - British dental journal, 1998 -

Objective: This study was carried out to examine the effectiveness of topically applied bupivacaine 0.25% with adrenaline 1: 200,“000”, for post-operative analgesia in children undergoing dental extractions under general anesthesia. Design: Randomized double …

Post-tonsillectomy infiltration with bupivacaine reduces immediate postoperative pain in children

AK Wong, B Bissonnette, BM Braude… - Canadian journal of …, 1995 - Springer

… was effective in reducing postoperative pain. 9 The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of bupivacaine 0.5% with 1:200,000 epinephrine on postoperative pain in children when administered after tonsillectomy either by a topical spray or submucosal infiltration. …

The efficacy of topical bupivacaine and triamcinolone acetonide injection in the relief of pain after endoscopic submucosal dissection for gastric neoplasia: a …

B Kim, H Lee, H Chung, JC Park, SK Shin, SK Lee… - Surgical …, 2015 - Springer

Background Although pain is a common complication of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), management strategies are inadequate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of topical bupivacaine and triamcinolone acetonide for abdominal pain relief and as …

The use of intraoperative topical bupivacaine in the control of postoperative pain following laparoscopic cholecystectomy

M Fornari, C Miglietta, S Di Gioia, C Garrone… - Minerva …, 1996 -

Taking the starting point of a trial conducted on female patients who had undergone laparoscopic gynecologic operations, which shows a good control of the postoperative pain through intraperitoneal infusion of local anesthetic during the operation, the authors …

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Ceramides are essential lipids naturally produced in the body and make up nearly 50% of the outermost layer of skin. Ceramides help in creating a lipid barrier that helps boost skin resilience and prevents the skin from losing moisture. When the skin lacks ceramides, it can lead to dryness and irritation, contributing to skin sensitivity.


The role of ceramide composition in the lipid organization of the skin barrier

JA Bouwstra, FER Dubbelaar, GS Gooris… - … et Biophysica Acta (BBA …, 1999 - Elsevier

The lipid lamellae in the stratum corneum (SC) play a key role in the barrier function of the skin. The major lipids are ceramides (CER), cholesterol (CHOL) and free fatty acids (FFA). In …

Ceramide and cholesterol composition of the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis

A Di Nardo, P Wertz, A Giannetti, S Seidenari - 1998 -

… Atopic dermatitis skin tends to be easily irritated and … skin (10) and a decrease in the proportion of ceramide 1 together with an increased level of esterified C1851 fatty acids …

Improvement of skin barrier function in atopic dermatitis patients with a new moisturizer containing a ceramide precursor

E Simpson, A Böhling, S Bielfeldt, C Bosc… - Journal of …, 2013 - Taylor & Francis

ceramide precursor, (22), pseudo-ceramide 5 or N-(2-hydroxyhexadecanoyl) sphinganin, has been shown in an in vitro skin model to increase endogenous ceramide … improved skin

Coal Tar

Coal tar belongs to a class of drugs known as keratoplastics. It works by causing the skin to shed dead cells from its top layer and slow down the growth of skin cells. Coal tar has been shown to help slow the rapid growth of skin cells and restore the skin's smooth appearance. Additionally, it may help reduce inflammation, itching, and scaling.


Coal tar in dermatology

JHJ Roelofzen, KKH Aben… - Journal of …, 2007 - Taylor & Francis

… This study investigates whether psoriasis or eczema patients who received coal tar treatment have an increased risk of developing cancer compared with patients who did not receive …

Possible Mechanism of Crude Coal Tar Therapy in Infantile Eczema.

AE Hansen - Proceedings of the Society for Experimental …, 1933 -

… The therapeutic value of ointments containing crude coal tar in infantile eczema has long been recognized. It is not infrequently noted in eczema cases showing extensive skin eruption …

Review of the mechanism of action of coal tar in psoriasis

S Sekhon, C Jeon, M Nakamura, L Afifi… - Journal of …, 2018 - Taylor & Francis

… for the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. However, the mechanism by which coal tar has its … mechanism by which coal tar has its therapeutic effect in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. …

Use of topical coal tar foam for the treatment of psoriasis in difficult-to-treat areas

JA Zeichner - The Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology, 2010 -

… Finally, palmoplantar psoriasis is often … Coal tar has been used to treat psoriasis for hundreds of years. In a novel foam vehicle, coal tar 2% is versatile and may be used to treat psoriasis

An evidence-based review of the efficacy of coal tar preparations in the treatment of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis.

JB Slutsky, RA Clark, AA Remedios… - Journal of drugs in …, 2010 -

coal tar for the treatment of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis (AD). OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on coal tar … light, for the treatment of psoriasis or AD. METHODS: MEDLINE/PubMed …

Mayo Clinic information


Clindamycin is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections, including infections of the lungs, skin, blood, female reproductive organs, and internal organs. Clindamycin is in a class of medications called lincomycin antibiotics. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of bacteria.

PDR information


Clobetasol is in a class of medications called super high-potency corticosteroids. This medication is used to treat a variety of skin conditions (such as eczema, psoriasis, dermatitis, allergies, rash). Clobetasol works by getting the body to stop its extreme immune response. When the immune system's reaction calms down, cell turnover slows, and the itchy, scaly rash improves.


Topical clobetasol-17-propionate: review of its clinical efficacy and safety

EA Olsen, RC Cornell - Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 1986 - Elsevier

… A single application of 25 gm of clobetasol ointment to twelve patients with eczema or psoriasis resulted in a rapid rise in plasma levels during the first 3 hours mad peak levels between …

Topical 0.05% clobetasol cream in the treatment of chronic hand eczema: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis

M Jing, Q Yu, B Zhu, F Yuan, J Zhang, L Peng, W Lin… - Medicine, 2021 -

… In recent years, topical 0.05% clobetasol cream is widely used for the treatment of CHE for its … Therefore, this work aims to assess the effectiveness and safety of topical 0.05% clobetasol

Relative efficacy and interchangeability of various clobetasol propionate vehicles in the management of steroid-responsive dermatoses

SR Feldman - Current therapeutic research, 2005 - Elsevier

… propionate, drug bioavailability, Class I topical agents, and … and atopic dermatitis. Two unpublished clinical investigations comparing clobetasol propionate lotion 0.05% with clobetasol

Successful treatment of therapy-resistant atopic dermatitis with clobetasol propionate and a hydrocolloid occlusive dressing.

G Volden - Acta dermato-venereologica. Supplementum, 1992 -

… amount of common topical steroid treatment needed. We conclude that clobetasol propionate and Duoderm once a week is the best treatment for resistant lesions of atopic dermatitis. …

Topical clobetasol propionate in the treatment of psoriasis

SR Feldman, BA Yentzer - American journal of clinical dermatology, 2009 - Springer

topical corticosteroids are the mainstay of psoriasis treatment, used either alone or in combination with a topical … Traditionally used in an ointment vehicle for psoriasis, clobetasol

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In men, clomiphene works by stimulating the body's own production of testosterone, signaling the testes to produce testosterone and thereby increase testosterone levels.


The effects of aging in normal men on bioavailable testosterone and luteinizing hormone secretion: response to clomiphene citrate

JS TENOVER, AM MATSUMOTO… - The Journal of …, 1987 -

Serum testosterone (T) levels in men decline with age while serum LH levels, as measured by RIA, increase. To assess if the decline in serum T levels in healthy aging men is …

Clomiphene increases free testosterone levels in men with both secondary hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction: who does and does not benefit?

AT Guay, J Jacobson, JB Perez, MB Hodge… - International journal of …, 2003 -

… These findings reinforce the recommendation to check testosterone levels in all men with ED. We also conclude that clomiphene stimulation may provide a reasonable option to correct …

Testosterone supplementation versus clomiphene citrate for hypogonadism: an age matched comparison of satisfaction and efficacy

R Ramasamy, JM Scovell, JR Kovac… - The Journal of …, 2014 -

men on CC, testosterone injectables and testosterone gels despite highly increased serum testosterone in men using injectable testosterone. … that supraphysiological testosterone levels …

Outcomes of clomiphene citrate treatment in young hypogonadal men

DJ Katz, O Nabulsi, R Tal, JP Mulhall - BJU international, 2012 - Wiley Online Library

… In conclusion, CC is an effective and safe alternative to testosterone supplementation therapy in hypogonadal men. The present study showed that there were significant improvements …

Mayo Clinic information


Clotrimazole is in a class of medications called Imidazole antifungals. It kills fungus by causing holes to appear in its cell membrane and the contents leak out. This kills the fungus and treats the infection.

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Cyclobenzaprine is in a class of medications called skeletal muscle relaxants. Cyclobenzaprine acts on the spinal cord nerves and decreases the number and severity of muscle spasms. It also relieves pain and improves muscle movement in patients with fibromyalgia.


Comprehensive Review of Topical Analgesics for Chronic Pain

J Maloney, S Pew, C Wie, R Gupta, J Freeman… - Current pain and …, 2021 - Springer

… There have been multiple studies on the efficacy of topical NSAIDs, capsaicin, and … ,cyclobenzaprine, baclofen, and amitriptyline are limited. This article reviews various topical agents …

Compounded topical analgesics for chronic pain

AE Cline, JE Turrentine - Dermatitis, 2016 -

Cyclobenzaprine has been used to treat chronic pain due to musculoskeletal disorders and fibromyalgia. Cyclobenzaprine is often compounded into topical … a topical compounded …

A review of pluronic lecithin organogel as a topical and transdermal drug delivery system

S Murdan - Hospital pharmacist, 2005 -

… Ketoprofen 10 per cent, cyclobenzaprine 1 per cent and lidocaine 5 per cent in pluronic lecithin organogel. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding 1998;2:154. 11. …

Novel treatment of radicular pain with a multi-mechanistic combination topical agent: a case series and literature review

P Safaeian, R Mattie, M Hahn… - … and Pain Medicine, 2016 -

… While topical formulations have been explored in pain research, there is no published … treated with a topical formulation of diclofenac, ibuprofen, baclofen, cyclobenzaprine, bupivacaine, …

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Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a hormone that your body naturally produces in the adrenal gland. DHEA helps produce other hormones, including testosterone and estrogen. DHEA concentration decreases with age, therefore, DHEA has been considered a hormone that reduces the symptoms associated with aging.


The relationship of circulating dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, and estradiol to stages of the menopausal transition and ethnicity

BL Lasley, N Santoro, JF Randolf… - The Journal of …, 2002 -

In this report, 3029 women between the ages of 42 and 54 yr from five ethnic groups were studied for 2 yr. Log circulating dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) concentrations were highest among Chinese and Japanese and lowest among African Americans and …

Supplementation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in pre-and postmenopausal women—position statement of expert panel of Polish Menopause and Andropause …

M Rabijewski, L Papierska, M Binkowska… - Ginekologia …, 2020 -

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentration decreases with age, therefore, DHEA has been considered a hormone that reduces the symptoms associated with aging, so the usefulness of DHEA in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, and the options of hormone therapy have received a large amount of attention. The effectiveness of DHEA in the premenopausal women remains unclear, while in postmenopausal women with coexisting estrogens deficiency is controversial. Despite many years of study, the use of …

Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation on sexual function in premenopausal infertile women

VA Kushnir, SK Darmon, DH Barad, A Weghofer… - Endocrine, 2019 - Springer

Purpose To investigate the effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation on female sexual function in premenopausal infertile women of advanced ages. Methods This observational study was conducted in an academically affiliated private fertility center. Patients included 87 premenopausal infertile women, 50 of whom completed the study including the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaires and comprehensive endocrine evaluation before and 4–8 weeks after initiating 25 mg of oral micronized DHEA …

Efficacy of intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on moderate to severe dyspareunia and vaginal dryness, symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy, and of the …

F Labrie, DF Archer, W Koltun, A Vachon, D Young… - Menopause, 2018 -

Objective: The aim of this study is to confirm the local beneficial effects of intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, Prasterone) on moderate to severe dyspareunia or pain at sexual activity, the most frequent symptom of vulvovaginal atrophy due to menopause or genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM). Methods: In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled phase III clinical trial, the effect of daily intravaginal 0.50% DHEA (6.5 mg)(Prasterone, EndoCeutics) was examined on four coprimary …

Vaginal DHEA to treat menopause related atrophy: a review of the evidence

M Panjari, SR Davis - Maturitas, 2011 - Elsevier

Vaginal atrophy is a common symptom of postmenopausal estrogen deficiency and can present as dryness, irritation, infection and dyspareunia and can affect sexual function and quality of life. Currently vaginal atrophy is treated with the intravaginal application of preparations containing estradiol or estriol, which are both effective and safe. It has been proposed that intravaginally administered dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be used to treat vaginal atrophy. DHEA and its sulphate DHEAS are the most abundant circulating sex …

Dehydroepiandrosterone intra vaginal administration for the management of postmenopausal vulvovaginal atrophy

DF Archer - The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular …, 2015 - Elsevier

The effects of intravaginal administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) for the management of symptomatic vulvovaginal atrophy are reviewed. A literature search related to vulvovaginal atrophy, vaginal atrophy, atrophic vaginitis, estrogen, dehydroepiandrosterone, vulvar itching, burning, dryness, dyspareunia, and libido was performed. Relevant articles addressing the incidence, management, and outcome of DHEA therapy were identified and used for this Expert Opinion. DHEA compared to a placebo is an …

Evaluating the efficacy of vaginal dehydroepiandrosterone for vaginal symptoms in postmenopausal cancer survivors: NCCTG N10C1 (Alliance)

DL Barton, JA Sloan, LT Shuster, P Gill, P Griffin… - Supportive Care in …, 2018 - Springer

Background Women with estrogen deficiencies can suffer from vaginal symptoms that negatively impact sexual health. This study evaluated vaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) for alleviation of vaginal symptoms. Methods This three-arm randomized, controlled trial evaluated DHEA 3.25 mg and DHEA 6.5 mg, each compared to a plain moisturizer (PM) over 12 weeks, to improve the severity of vaginal dryness or dyspareunia, measured with an ordinal scale, and overall sexual health using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) …

Dehydroepiandrosterone for women in the peri‐or postmenopausal phase

CS Scheffers, S Armstrong… - Cochrane Database …, 2015 -

Background During menopause a decreasing ovarian follicular response generally causes a fluctuation and eventual decrease in estrogen levels. This can lead to the development of various perimenopausal and postmenopausal symptoms (for example hot flushes, night sweats, vaginal dryness). Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is one of the main precursors of androgens, which in turn are converted to testosterone and estrogens. It is possible that the administration of DHEA may increase estrogen and testosterone levels in peri‐and …

Treatment of pain at sexual activity (dyspareunia) with intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (prasterone)

DF Archer, F Labrie, C Bouchard, DJ Portman… - Menopause, 2015 -

Objective: This study aims to confirm the local effects of intravaginal prasterone on moderate to severe dyspareunia, a symptom of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) associated with menopause. Methods: In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III clinical trial, we examined the effects of daily intravaginal prasterone (6.5 mg) on four co–primary objectives, namely, percentage of vaginal parabasal cells, percentage of vaginal superficial cells, vaginal pH, and moderate to severe dyspareunia identified by …

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Diclofenac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to treat mild-to-moderate pain and helps to relieve symptoms of arthritis (eg, osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis), such as inflammation, swelling, stiffness, and joint pain.


A review of topical diclofenac use in musculoskeletal disease

B Nair, R Taylor-Gjevre - Pharmaceuticals, 2010 -

… We review the efficacy and safety of one of the most common topical NSAIDS, topical diclofenac, for the treatment of osteoarthritis. … The remaining two patients had pre-existing history of GI ulcer disease before using the topical diclofenac gel. The authors of the case series …

Safety and efficacy of topical diclofenac sodium gel for knee osteoarthritis in elderly and younger patients

HSB Baraf, FM Gloth, HR Barthel, MS Gold, RD Altman - Drugs & aging, 2011 - Springer

Background: NSAIDs used for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) have dose-related risks for gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and renal adverse events (AEs), particularly in elderly patients. Topical NSAIDs reduce systemic NSAID exposure and may mitigate these risks …

Safety and efficacy of topical diclofenac sodium 1% gel in knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial

HSB Baraf, MS Gold, MB Clark… - The Physician and …, 2010 - Taylor & Francis

Background: Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may provide an alternative to oral NSAIDs to relieve pain from osteoarthritis (OA), reducing systemic exposure. This 12-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter trial …

Topical diclofenac and its role in pain and inflammation: an evidence-based review

J Zacher, R Altman, N Bellamy… - … medical research and …, 2008 - Taylor & Francis

… In addition, non-RCT evidence from publications evaluating the pharmacologic characteristics of topical diclofenac were also included in this review to … The most commonly assessed topical diclofenac formulation was diclofenac diethylamine gel, followed by the diclofenac

Topical diclofenac: clinical effectiveness and current uses in osteoarthritis of the knee and soft tissue injuries

M Banning - Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy, 2008 - Taylor & Francis

… , efficacy and reported adverse effects of the topical diclofenac formulations available. Results/conclusions: In the majority of studies examined, topical diclofenac formulations with sodium lotion, lecithin or epolamine gel, patch or plaster were either superior or equivalent to oral …

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Estrogens are female hormones naturally produced by the body and are necessary for the normal sexual development of the female and for the regulation of the menstrual cycle during the childbearing years. The ovaries begin to produce less estrogen after menopause (the change of life). Estrogen replacement medicine is often prescribed to make up for the lower amount of estrogen.


Estriol in the postmenopause

GM Heimer - Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 1987 - Taylor & Francis

… In one of our studies (32) we have shown that the 24-hour systemic availability (AUC) of 1 mg estriol given vaginally did not differ significantly from that of 10 mg estriol given orally. The plasma estriol levels after 21 days of vaginal application of 1 mg estriol were almost in the …

Estrogen and skin

MG Shah, HI Maibach - American journal of clinical dermatology, 2001 - Springer

As the population of postmenopausal women increases, interest in the effects of estrogen grows. The influence of estrogen on several body systems has been well-documented; however, one area that has not been explored is the effects of estrogen on skin. Estrogen

Estrogen and skin

YY Shu, HI Maibach - American journal of clinical dermatology, 2011 - Springer

Aging of the skin is associated with skin thinning, atrophy, dryness, wrinkling, and delayed wound healing. These undesirable aging effects are exacerbated by declining estrogen levels in postmenopausal women. With the rise in interest in long-term postmenopausal skin

Estrogen and skin: the effects of estrogen, menopause, and hormone replacement therapy on the skin

G Hall, TJ Phillips - Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 2005 - Elsevier

Aging is associated with declining levels of several hormones, including estrogen. Although the effects of estrogen on the skin are still not fully understood, it is known that, in women, declining estrogen levels are associated with a variety of cutaneous changes, many of which …

Skin collagen changes in postmenopausal women receiving different regimens of estrogen therapy.

M Brincat, E Versi, CF Moniz, A Magos… - Obstetrics and …, 1987 -

Collagen is a widespread body constituent that is affected by estrogen status in women. Its decrease after menopause can be prevented and/or restored by estrogen treatment. We explored the effect of four different hormonal replacement regimens on total skin collagen …

… effect of a new ultra low concentration estriol gel formulation (0.005% estriol vaginal gel) on symptoms and signs of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy: results from a …

A Cano, J Estévez, R Usandizaga, JL Gallo… - Menopause, 2012 -

Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new low-concentration estriol formulation (0.005% estriol vaginal gel), providing an ultra low dose of estriol per application (50 μg), for the local treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy …

Effects of ultralow topical estriol dose on vaginal health and quality of life in postmenopausal women who underwent surgical treatment for pelvic organ prolapse

S Caruso, S Cianci, SG Vitale, MG Matarazzo… - …, 2017 -

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of low concentrations of vaginal estriol gel in postmenopausal women with pelvic static disorders before and after vaginal surgical treatment, assessing vaginal health, sexual function, and quality of life (QoL). Methods …

Quality of life and sexual function of naturally postmenopausal women on an ultralow-concentration estriol vaginal gel

S Caruso, S Cianci, FF Amore, B Ventura, E Bambili… - Menopause, 2016 -

Objective: This study aims to evaluate the sexual function and quality of life (QoL) of naturally postmenopausal women affected by genitourinary syndrome of menopause who were treated with an ultralow-concentration estriol vaginal gel (0.005%). Methods …

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PDR information

Mayo Clinic information (vaginal route)

Mayo Clinic information (oral & topical route)


Finasteride blocks the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the androgen responsible for hair loss (androgenetic alopecia). Research has shown it promotes scalp hair growth and prevents further hair loss.


Topical finasteride for the treatment of male androgenetic alopecia and female pattern hair loss: a review of the current literature

P Suchonwanit, W Iamsumang… - Journal of …, 2020 - Taylor & Francis

Background: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a frequently encountered dermatological concern that impacts a patient's self-esteem and quality of life. Finasteride is a selective 5-alpha reductase inhibitor that has been approved for the treatment of male AGA and the off …

A systematic review of topical finasteride in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in men and women

SW Lee, M Juhasz, P Mobasher, C Ekelem… - Journal of drugs in …, 2018 -

… decrease in the rate of hair loss, increase in total and terminal hair counts, and positive hair growth assessment with topical FNS. Both scalp … This study provides the first evidence that topical FNS slows AGA-associated hair loss by modulating DHT levels, while also reducing …

Efficacy of topical combination of 0.25% finasteride and 3% minoxidil versus 3% minoxidil solution in female pattern hair loss: a randomized, double-blind, controlled …

P Suchonwanit, W Iamsumang… - American journal of …, 2019 - Springer

Background The relationship between female pattern hair loss (FPHL) and androgenic hormones is not well established, but some evidence indicates oral finasteride may be efficacious in FPHL. Use of a topical formulation has been proposed to minimize unwanted …

Hair loss in women

FM Camacho-Martinez - Seminars in cutaneous medicine and …, 2009 -

… We also treated 31 women with PCOS who presented as FAGA.I–II with 5 mg/d finasteride and 5% topical minoxidil. At these doses a reasonable clinical improvement was obtained in 23 women (74.1%; Fig. 11A and 11D) and moderate improvement in another 8 cases (25.8%)…

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Fluconazole is in a class of medications called Triazole antifungals. It kills fungus by causing holes to appear in its cell membrane and the contents leak out. This kills the fungus and treats the infection.


Fluconazole nasal spray in the treatment of allergic fungal sinusitis: a pilot study

A Jen, A Kacker, C Huang… - Ear, nose & throat …, 2004 -

… ofchronic sinusitis characterized by nasal obstruction, sinus pain, … saline nasal irrigation has been used to clear the nasal and … ies uscd to formulare the nasal spray uscd in this study, but …

The role of antifungal therapy in the prevention of recurrent allergic fungal rhinosinusitis after functional endoscopic sinus surgery: a randomized, controlled study

Y Khalil, A Tharwat, AG Abdou, E Essa… - Ear, Nose & Throat …, 2011 -

… and nasal fluconazole (group C), and irrigation with a fluconazole solution through the nasal Fluconazole nasal spray in the treatment of allergic fungal sinusitis: A pilot study. Ear Nose …

PDR information


5-fluorouracil is a fluorinated pyrimidine analog that acts as an anti-metabolic agent, which inhibits fibroblast growth and decreases collagen synthesis resulting in scar degradation.


5-Fluorouracil treatment of problematic scars

MJ Haurani, K Foreman, JJ Yang… - Plastic and …, 2009 -

… the scar literature, we decided to study the role of 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of abnormal scars. These articles suggest that intralesional 5-fluorouracil … of our prospective case series evaluating the utility of intralesional 5-fluorouracil for abnormal scar treatment and prevention. …

Triamcinolone acetonide combined with 5-fluorouracil suppresses urethral scar fibroblasts autophagy and fibrosis by increasing miR-192-5p expression

W Zhou, Q Yu, J Ma, C Xu, D Wu… - American Journal of …, 2021 -

Urethral stricture is one of the common diseases in urology. It can lead to obstructive voiding dysfunction and may cause long-term damage to the entire urinary tract. Here, we investigated the effect of combined use of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and triamcinolone acetonide …

Steroids and fluorouracil for keloids and hypertrophic scars

W Carroll, K Patel - JAMA facial plastic surgery, 2015 -

scars and keloids. The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence for triamcinolone and fluorouracil, either alone or in combination, in the treatment of hypertrophic scars and …

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Gabapentin belongs to a class of medications called anticonvulsants and has been used to treat nerve pain, such as burning, shooting, or stabbing pain. Gabapentin works by changing the way that nerves send messages to your brain. By altering the way nerves work, gabapentin may reduce your pain.


Topical gabapentin in the treatment of localized and generalized vulvodynia

LA Boardman, AS Cooper, LR Blais… - Obstetrics & …, 2008 -

… Based on our findings, topical gabapentin has the capacity to fulfill these criteria. As background, gabapentin was first approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1993 for the …

Severe postherpetic neuralgia and other neuropathic pain syndromes alleviated by topical gabapentin

S Hiom, GK Patel, RG Newcombe, S Khot… - British Journal of …, 2015 -

gabapentin concentration after topical application (0.01 lg mL … lower than that reported for oral gabapentin (2–20 lg mL … 35 patients with VVD found that topical gabapentin led to a > 50% …

Topical gabapentin gel alleviates allodynia and hyperalgesia in the chronic sciatic nerve constriction injury neuropathic pain model

M Shahid, F Subhan, N Ahmad, G Ali… - … Journal of Pain, 2017 - Wiley Online Library

… of topical gabapentin gel in the chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain. Both gabapentin gel and systemic gabapentin-… Topical gabapentin gel offers the advantage that it is …

Analgesic Efficacy and Transdermal Penetration of Topical Gabapentin Creams: Finding an Optimal Dose and Pre-treatment Time.

A Heustess, S Spigener, S Sweitzer… - International Journal …, 2015 -

… compound gabapentin into … of topical gabapentin compounded in Lipoderm were applied at various pre-treatment times (30 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours) to investigate what gabapentin

Gabapentin in pain management

J Mao, LL Chen - Anesthesia & Analgesia, 2000 -

… However, both the efficacy and indications of gabapentin for pain treatment are yet to be established, and there is a lack of consensus with regard to the dosage, indications for use of …

Gabapentin in the treatment of neuropathic pain

MI Bennett, KH Simpson - Palliative Medicine, 2004 -

pain and pain associated with multiple sclerosis.In general, treatment with gabapentin was successful in reducing pain … Following the apparent success of gabapentin described in case …

Gabapentin for acute and chronic pain

PJ Wiffen, HJ McQuay, J Edwards… - Cochrane database of …, 2005 -

… , case reports, clinical observations or studies of gabapentin used to treat pain produced by … Since the first version of this review, gabapentin has become established as a treatment for …

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Gentamicin is used to treat or prevent infections in the skin and nasal cavity due to certain strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa aureus bacteria. This medicine works by killing bacteria or preventing their growth.


Safety and efficacy of once‐daily nasal irrigation for the treatment of pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis

JL Wei, KJ Sykes, P Johnson, J He… - The …, 2011 - Wiley Online Library

… to perform gentamicin nasal irrigation (30 … gentamicin with mean serum level of 0.42 μg/mL. Four of the 12 patients had serum gentamicin levels within the normal range for gentamicin

Nasal administration of gentamicin using a novel microsphere delivery system

L Ilium, N Farraj, H Critchley, SS Davis - International journal of …, 1988 - Elsevier

… the uptake of the drug across the nasal membrane. This uptake was … gentamicin was increased to about 50% of the iv dose as compared to less than 1% for a simple nasal gentamicin

A pilot study of the effect of gentamicin on nasal potential difference measurements in cystic fibrosis patients carrying stop mutations

M WILSCHANSKI, C FAMINI, H BLAU… - American journal of …, 2000 -

… The aim of this research was to determine if topical application of gentamicin to the nasalgentamicin drops (0.3%, 3 mg/ml) three times daily intranasally for a total of 14 d. Nasal

Use of aminoglycosides in surgical infections.

HH Stone, LD Kolb, CE Geheber, EJ Dawkins - Annals of Surgery, 1976 -

… Haynes' comment that, should there be established drainage, andyet sepsis is still a problem, then antibiotics become quite useful in controlling bacteremia until local wound care can …

Local injection of aminoglycosides for prophylaxis against infection in open fractures

CR Lawing, FC Lin, LE Dahners - The Journal of Bone and Joint …, 2015 -

… The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of local wound cavity injections of aqueous aminoglycosides (gentamicin and tobramycin), in conjunction with systemic antibiotics…

PDR information

Glycolic Acid

Glycolic acid can remove the top layer of skin cells with the need for physical debridement (i.e. scrubbing) and is often used to exfoliate skin and reduce the rough or raised appearance of a scar. Glycolic acid has shown to reduce the discoloration of acne scars as well.


Comparison of topical therapy for striae alba (20% glycolic acid/0.05% tretinoin versus 20% glycolic acid/10% L‐ascorbic acid)

K Ash, J Lord, M ZUKOWSKL… - Dermatologic …, 1998 - Wiley Online Library

… In Elson's study, early stretch marks (striae rubra) were effectively treated with 0.1% … stretch mark but not by histologic analysis. Whereas Elson's work concentrated on early stretch marks

Striae distensae (stretch marks) and different modalities of therapy: an update

ML Elsaie, LS Baumann, LT Elsaaiee - Dermatologic Surgery, 2009 - Wiley Online Library

Glycolic Acid and Trichloroacetic Acid Glycolic acid (GA) is an alpha hydroxyl acid. Although there are several reports on the clinical effects of GA in rejuvenation, peeling, and …

Retinoic acid and glycolic acid combination in the treatment of acne scars

BS Chandrashekar, KR Ashwini… - Indian Dermatology …, 2015 -

… (a) Acne scars with global scarring grading system score of 6 before starting of … acid and glycolic acid treatment (b) Acne scars after 12 weeks of retinoic acid and glycolic acid treatment

Hyaluronic Acid

Hyaluronic acid is naturally produced by the body and is found in high concentrations within the skin. Hyaluronic acid is essential for maintaining your skin's moisture balance and is responsible for your skin’s plumpness and volume. Hyaluronic acid has been shown to attract and retain water, making it an excellent hydrating ingredient. As we age, hyaluronic acid levels decline, which is why it’s important to supplement products that contain this ingredient.


Hyaluronic acid, a promising skin rejuvenating biomedicine: A review of recent updates and pre-clinical and clinical investigations on cosmetic and nutricosmetic …

SNA Bukhari, NL Roswandi, M Waqas, H Habib… - International journal of …, 2018 - Elsevier

… In this study, authors have tested four topical cream formulations (Balea, Nivea, Lancome, Chanel) containing HA on 20 women with periorbital … The therapeutic significance of hyaluronic acid formulations for the treatment of wrinkles including are shown in Table 1. …

Hyaluronic acid: A key molecule in skin aging

E Papakonstantinou, M Roth… - Dermato …, 2012 - Taylor & Francis

Skin aging is a multifactorial process consisting of two distinct and independent mechanisms: intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Youthful skin retains its turgor, resilience and pliability, among others, due to its high content of water. Daily external injury, in addition to...


Hydroquinone is used to lighten the dark patches of skin (also called hyperpigmentation, melasma, "liver spots," "age spots," freckles) caused by pregnancy, birth control pills, hormone medicine, or injury to the skin. This medicine works by blocking the process in the skin that leads to discoloration.


A clinical, prospective, randomized, double‐blind trial comparing skin whitening complex with hydroquinone vs. placebo in the treatment of melasma

AL Haddad, LF Matos, F Brunstein… - International journal …, 2003 - Wiley Online Library

Objectives To compare, in a double‐blind, randomized, prospective study, the clinical improvement of hyperpigmentation in 30 patients with melasma using hydroquinone or skin whitening complex topically on one side of the face vs. a placebo cream on the other. The …

A hydroquinone solution in the treatment of melasma

JL Sanchez, M Vazquez - International journal of dermatology, 1982 - Wiley Online Library

Two versions of a 3% hydroquinone solution in a hydroalcoholic solution were tested in 46 patients with melasma. The more effective of the two solutions tested, Formula A, was found to produce improvement in 88% of the patients, with moderate to marked improvement in …

Topical hydroquinone in the treatment of some hyperpigmentary disorders

M Amer, M Metwalli - International journal of dermatology, 1998 - Wiley Online Library

Seventy patients (50 with melasma, 10 with freckles, and 10 with post‐inflammatory hyperpigmentation) were admitted to this trial. Treatment in the form of 4% hydroquinone (HQ) was applied topically twice daily for a maximum of 12 weeks. Patients were advised to …

Topical use of hydroquinone as a depigmenting agent

KA Arndt, TB Fitzpatrick - Jama, 1965 -

Hydroquinone is known to inhibit melanogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, 2% and 5% hydroquinone creams were topically applied to the hyperpigmented skin of 56 patients. Used in this way, hydroquinone was a moderately effective depigmenting agent in …

The safety of hydroquinone

JJ Nordlund, PE Grimes… - Journal of the European …, 2006 - Wiley Online Library

… over 50 years and no cases of skin cancer or internal malignancy related to the topical application of hydroquinone have been reported. … of hydroquinone. , 52 When compared to parenterally administered hydroquinone, topical hydroquinone has demonstrated no renal toxicity. …

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Ipratropium is used to treat a runny nose caused by the common cold or seasonal allergies. It works by reducing the amount of fluid/mucus released from inside your nose.


Ipratropium nasal spray: a new treatment for rhinorrhea in the common cold

P Borum, L Olsen, B Winther… - American Review of …, 1981 -

… was to study the effect of ipratropium spray on rhinorrhea in … In this first study of ipratropium treatment of the common cold, … to study any effect of ipratropium on nasal obstruction, as both …

Ipratropium nasal spray in children with perennial rhinitis

EO Meltzer, HA Orgel, R Biondi, J Georgitis… - Annals of Allergy …, 1997 - Elsevier

… Treatment with ipratropium reduced symptoms of rhinorrhea primarily in patients with PNAR… patients and suggested that treatment with ipratropium nasal spray was associated with an …

A clinical trial of ipratropium bromide nasal spray in patients with perennial nonallergic rhinitis

EA Bronsky, H Druce, SR Findlay, FC Hampel… - Journal of allergy and …, 1995 - Elsevier

… of a new isotonic aqueous ipratropium bromide nasal spray pump, specifically in … of ipratropium bromide nasal spray with its vehicle, a saline solution. Treatment with the ipratropium

Chronic nonallergic rhinitis

DKC Sur, ML Plesa - American family physician, 2018 -

… , and intranasal ipratropium. Combination therapy with … Nasal irrigation and intranasal capsaicin may be helpful but … Intranasal ipratropium is typically administered as one or two …

Nonallergic rhinitis (runny or stuffy nose)

RH Fletcher, J Corren, MD Deputy, LK Moynihan… -

Nasal irrigation is particularly useful for symptoms of postnasal drainage. Nasal irrigation can be used before use of nasal … The latter technique is called nasal irrigation or nasal lavage. …

PDR information


Ivermectin represents a unique treatment for reducing inflammatory lesions of rosacea and is thought to exert its benefit via dual mechanisms. First, ivermectin has anti-inflammatory activity, decreasing both the cellular and humoral immunity pathways that are thought to be involved in the development of rosacea. In addition, ivermectin is a vermicidal agent, killing Demodex mites that have been implicated in rosacea pathophysiology and may drive inflammation.


Topical ivermectin in the treatment of papulopustular rosacea: a systematic review of evidence and clinical guideline recommendations

CCF Ebbelaar, AW Venema, MR Van Dijk - Dermatology and Therapy, 2018 - Springer

… In this review, we aimed to provide an update on topical ivermectin in the treatment of rosacea compared to other treatment options. We calculated NNTs since these are highly …

An emerging treatment: topical ivermectin for papulopustular rosacea

M Abokwidir, AB Fleischer - Journal of Dermatological Treatment, 2015 - Taylor & Francis

… The recent clinical studies of ivermectin on rosacea show that it was superior to vehicle in … Topical ivermectin is a highly effective and well-tolerated treatment for papulopustular rosacea

Dual anti‐inflammatory and anti‐parasitic action of topical ivermectin 1% in papulopustular rosacea

M Schaller, L Gonser, K Belge… - Journal of the …, 2017 - Wiley Online Library

… Recently, therapy of rosacea with inflammatory lesions (papulopustular) has improved substantially with the approval of topical ivermectin 1% cream. It is assumed to have a dual mode …

The treatment of rosacea with topical ivermectin.

ST Ali, H Alinia, SR Feldman - Drugs of Today (Barcelona, Spain …, 2015 -

… safety of topical ivermectin. PubMed … topical ivermectin", "ivermectin cream" and "rosacea". Three clinical trials were found that studied topical ivermectin as a treatment option for rosacea

Efficacy of topical ivermectin and impact on quality of life in patients with papulopustular rosacea: a systematic review and meta‐analysis

H Husein‐ElAhmed, M Steinhoff - Dermatologic Therapy, 2020 - Wiley Online Library

… -analysis, ivermectin showed … ivermectin is the most effective topical treatment. Besides, this agent provides the greatest psychological benefit as it satisfies the stigmatization of rosacea

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Ketoconazole is in a class of medications called Imidazole antifungals. Research has shown that ketoconazole is active against the scalp microflora and shows some intrinsic anti-inflammatory activity might improve alopecia.


Topical application of ketoconazole stimulates hair growth in C3H/HeN mice

J Jiang, R Tsuboi, Y Kojima… - The Journal of …, 2005 - Wiley Online Library

… as a hair growth stimulant. Although the therapeutic mechanism of topical KCZ for hair growth … for treating seborrheic dermatitis accompanied by hair regression or male pattern hair loss. …

Medical treatments for male and female pattern hair loss

NE Rogers, MR Avram - Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 2008 - Elsevier

… in some patients taking oral ketoconazole. The oral administration of ketoconazole for AGA is … Although ketoconazole may not be the most effective tool for hair loss, it is an important …

Ketoconazole shampoo: effect of long-term use in androgenic alopecia

C Piérard-Franchimont, P De Doncker… - Dermatology, 1998 -

… a cytokine inducing hair loss [3]. The negative influence of inflammation on AGA hair status is … Currently, there is near unanimous recognition that ketoconazole (KCZ) is highly effective …

Hair: What is New in Diagnosis and Management?: Female Pattern Hair Loss Update: Diagnosis and Treatment

NA Mesinkovska, WF Bergfeld - Dermatologic clinics, 2013 -

… in male androgenetic alopecia and female pattern hair loss: an update of what we now know. … Ketoconazole also affects steroidogenesis locally and it decreases DHT levels at the …

Topical ketoconazole for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia: a systematic review

JR Fields, PM Vonu, RL Monir… - Dermatologic …, 2020 - Wiley Online Library

Topical ketoconazole has been proposed as a promising … to evaluate the efficacy of topical ketoconazole in the treatment of … Va hair loss (Hamilton-Norwood classification) showed hair

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Ketoprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to treat mild-to-moderate pain and helps to relieve symptoms of arthritis (eg, osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis), such as inflammation, swelling, stiffness, and joint pain.


Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults

T Massey, S Derry, RA Moore… - Cochrane Database of …, 2010 -

Background Use of topical NSAIDs to treat acute musculoskeletal conditions is widely accepted in some parts of the world, but not in others. Their main attraction is their potential to provide pain relief without associated systemic adverse events. Objectives To review the …

Topical NSAIDs for chronic musculoskeletal pain: systematic review and meta-analysis

L Mason, RA Moore… - BMC …, 2004 - bmcmusculoskeletdisord …

A previous systematic review reported that topical NSAIDs were effective in relieving pain in chronic conditions like osteoarthritis and tendinitis. More trials, a better understanding of trial quality and bias, and a reclassification of certain drugs necessitate a new review. Studies …

Topical NSAIDs for chronic musculoskeletal pain in adults

S Derry, P Conaghan, JAP Da Silva… - Cochrane Database …, 2016 -

Background Use of topical nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to treat chronic musculoskeletal conditions has become widely accepted because they can provide pain relief without associated systemic adverse events. This review is an update of' topical

Safety and efficacy of topical ketoprofen in transfersome gel in knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review

V Sardana, J Burzynski, P Zalzal - Musculoskeletal Care, 2017 - Wiley Online Library

… treatment arms, and the 50 mg topical ketoprofen in Transfersome gel group had functional … in the topical ketoprofen groups was comparable with that in the topical placebo treatment …

Topical ketoprofen patch (100 mg) for the treatment of ankle sprain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

B Mazières, S Rouanet, J Velicy… - … American journal of …, 2005 -

topical ketoprofen have been reported, 2 especially photosensitization, possibly related to benzophenone chromophore. A recent review of trials studying other topical … AEs after topical

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Lactic Acid

Lactic acid is a gentle alpha-hydroxy acid that helps promote the skin’s natural exfoliation process. By eliminating the buildup of dead cells, this ingredient may help soften and smooth your rough or scaly skin.


Treatment with a barrier-strengthening moisturizer prevents relapse of hand eczema. An open, randomized, prospective, parallel group study

M LODéN, K WIRéN, KT Smerud… - Acta dermato …, 2010 -

eczema and they used moisturizers daily. Patients with a possible allergy to ingredients in the study medication and patients with active psoriatic lesions, active atopic eczemalactic acid

Topical treatments for managing patients with eczema.

P Buchanan, M Courtenay - Nursing standard, 2007 -

… Emollients containing urea, lactic acid, salicylic acid and glycerol promote skin hydration and removal of excess scale (desquamation) and are particularly useful for very scaly, dry skin …

Epidermal and dermal effects of topical lactic acid

WP Smith - Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 1996 - Elsevier

… % lactic acid resulted in increased epidermal and dermal firmness and thickness and clinical improvement in skin … No dermal changes were observed after treatment with 5% lactic acid; …

Lactic acid applications in pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries

RA Abd Alsaheb, A Aladdin, NZ Othman… - Journal of Chemical …, 2015 -

Topically applied lactic acid salts, particularly … Lactic acid is an alpha hydroxyl acid used in skin care as a chemical exfoliant. A lactic acid lotion benefits skin by dissolving dead skin that …


Levofloxacin is in a class of medications called Fluoroquinolones. It covers the pathogens that are involved in sinusitis, and an added advantage is that it is effective in attacking organisms that are becoming resistant.


Culture-directed topical antibiotic treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis

VS Lee, GE Davis - American journal of rhinology & allergy, 2016 -

Background Topical antibiotics, delivered optimally as high-volume culture-directed sinus irrigations, are being increasingly used for recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS)...

PDR information


Lidocaine is in a class of medications called local anesthetics. Lidocaine is a numbing agent that blocks the nerve impulses that send pain signals to your brain.


Topical lidocaine for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia

W Khaliq, S Alam, NK Puri - Cochrane Database of Systematic …, 2007 -

Background This is an update of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 2, 2007. The cause of postherpetic neuralgia is damage to peripheral neurons, dorsal root ganglia, and the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, secondary to herpes zoster infection (shingles). In …

Topical lidocaine for neuropathic pain in adults

S Derry, PJ Wiffen, RA Moore… - Cochrane Database of …, 2014 -

… This review found no evidence from good quality randomized controlled studies to support the use of topical lidocaine to treat neuropathic pain, although individual studies indicated that it was effective for relief of pain. Clinical experience also supports efficacy in some …

Topical lidocaine gel relieves postherpetic neuralgia

MC Rowbotham, PS Davies… - Annals of Neurology …, 1995 - Wiley Online Library

Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) following herpes zoster is a common and disabling neuropathic pain syndrome. In a double‐blind, three‐session study, 5% lidocaine gel or vehicle was applied simultaneously to both the area of pain and to the contralateral mirror …

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Menthol is used to treat minor aches and pains of the muscles/joints (such as arthritis, backache, sprains). Menthol is known as a counterirritant. It works by causing the skin to feel cool and then warm. These feelings on the skin distract you from feeling the aches/pains deeper in your muscles and joints.


The role and mechanism of action of menthol in topical analgesic products

JV Pergolizzi Jr, R Taylor Jr… - Journal of clinical …, 2018 - Wiley Online Library

Topical menthol has been shown to help relieve the pain associated with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (patients in this study had either chemotherapy-induced …

The effect of menthol on cold allodynia in patients with neuropathic pain

G Wasner, D Naleschinski, A Binder… - Pain …, 2008 -

… the effect of topical menthol on preexisting cold allodynia in neuropathic pain patients to test … In summary, the effect of topically applied menthol has been investigated for the first time in …

The effect of either topical menthol or a placebo on functioning and knee pain among patients with knee OA

R Topp, JA Brosky, D Pieschel - Journal of geriatric physical …, 2013 -

… The purpose of this study was to compare the ability to complete functional tasks and knee pain while completing functional tasks among patients with knee OA after topical application of …

Cancer treatment-related neuropathic pain: proof of concept study with menthol—a TRPM8 agonist

MT Fallon, DJ Storey, A Krishan, CJ Weir… - Supportive Care in …, 2015 - Springer

… As a result of this work, we successfully used topical menthol, a TRPM8 agonist, in two cases of treatment-resistant chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, allowing continuation …

[HTML] Acute effect of topical menthol on chronic pain in slaughterhouse workers with carpal tunnel syndrome: triple-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial

E Sundstrup, MD Jakobsen, M Brandt, K Jay… - … research and practice, 2014 -

Pain intensity of the arm/hand decreased by −1.2 (CI 95%: −1.7 to −0.6) following topical menthol … In conclusion, topical menthol acutely reduces pain intensity during the working day in …

Menthol: a natural analgesic compound

N Galeotti, LDC Mannelli, G Mazzanti, A Bartolini… - Neuroscience …, 2002 - Elsevier

… effect of menthol. (−)-Menthol produced a dose-dependent increase in the pain threshold in the … Applied topically, menthol causes tingling sensation and a feeling of coolness due to …


Metronidazole is an antibiotic. It may help to decrease redness, swelling, and the number of lesions (pimples and red bumps) caused by rosacea. It is believed to work by decreasing swelling and inflammation. Metronidazole has been reported to result in a reduction or eradication of wound odor, decrease in wound drainage, improvement in wound appearance, decrease in surrounding cellulitis, halting of tissue necrosis, and decrease in pain.


Topical metronidazole

KJ McClellan, S Noble - American journal of clinical dermatology, 2000 - Springer

Topical application of the antibacterial agent metronidazole is effective in the treatment of moderate to severe rosacea, although its mechanism of action has yet to be clearly established. Metronidazole preparations (0.75 and 1% cream, 0.75% gel and 0.75% lotion) …

Topical metronidazole maintains remissions of rosacea

MV Dahl, HI Katz, GG Krueger, LE Millikan… - Archives of …, 1998 -

Background Rosacea is a chronic skin disease that requires long-term therapy. Oral antibiotics and topical metronidazole successfully treat rosacea. Because long-term use of systemic antibiotics carries risks for systemic complications and adverse reactions, topical

Topical metronidazole therapy for rosacea

PA Bleicher, JH Charles, AJ Sober - Archives of dermatology, 1987 -

Forty patients with rosacea were treated topically with 0.75% metronidazole gel in a randomized split-face double-blind paired-comparison trial. With twice-daily applications, 36.7, 48.5, and 65.1 mean percent reductions in total papules and pustules were noted over …

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Minoxidil is considered a vasodilator that increases blood flow. It is applied to the scalp and is used to stimulate hair growth in adult men and women with a certain type of baldness.


Topical minoxidil therapy for hair regrowth.

JA Rumsfield, DP West, VC Fiedler-Weiss - Clinical pharmacy, 1987 -

… The pathogenesis of hair loss, the postulated mechanisms of minoxidil action on hair growth, … formulations, and percutaneous absorption of topical minoxidil preparations are reviewed. …

Quality of life in women with female pattern hair loss and the impact of topical minoxidil treatment on quality of life in these patients

XS Zhuang, YY Zheng, JJ Xu… - Experimental and …, 2013 -

Topical minoxidil has been shown to be effective and safe in … and investigate whether topical minoxidil solution treatment … The results of the study demonstrated that topical minoxidil

Minoxidil and its use in hair disorders: a review

P Suchonwanit, S Thammarucha… - Drug design …, 2019 -

… To date, topical minoxidil is the mainstay treatment for androgenetic alopecia and is used as an off-label treatment for other hair loss conditions. Despite its widespread application, the …

Topical minoxidil in early male pattern baldness

EA Olsen, MS Weiner, ER Delong, SR Pinnell - Journal of the American …, 1985 - Elsevier

… This cessation of hair loss may be an effect of topical minoxidil but may also reflect a quiescent period in the natural course of male pattern baldness. In general, the nonresponders had …

A randomized clinical trial of 5% topical minoxidil versus 2% topical minoxidil and placebo in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in men

EA Olsen, FE Dunlap, T Funicella, JA Koperski… - Journal of the American …, 2002 - Elsevier

… in the 2% topical minoxidil and placebo … hair loss condition and feeling about present hair loss condition (Table VI). In one case (effect of hair loss condition on life), 5% topical minoxidil

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Misoprostol is a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E1 that is known to reduce the inflammatory process and promote collagen formation in wounds. Research has shown topical misoprostol may decrease the healing time of acute wounds.


An investigation of misoprostol in the promotion of wound healing

JM Vandervoort, MA Nieves… - Veterinary and …, 2006 -

misoprostol wound powder to open wounds in dogs would modulate inflammation and decrease wound healing … with 281 surgically cre0ated 8 mm open wounds over the dorsum...

Influence of misoprostol, a synthetic prostaglandin E1 analog, on the healing of colonic anastomoses in rats

PG de Oliveira, EG Soares, F Aprilli - Diseases of the colon & rectum, 1994 - Springer

… The test group received misoprostol intragastrically (200/,g/kg … RESULTS: Our results show that misoprostol administration … CONCLUSION: Misoprostol interferes with the balance …

Effects of misoprostol on delayed ulcer healing induced by aspirin

AG Penney, FJ Andrews, PE O'Brien - Digestive diseases and sciences, 1994 - Springer

… However, misoprostol did not reverse the effects of aspirin on an index of wound contraction. We conclude that treatment with misoprostol significantly reverses the delayed healing

PDR information


Mometasone is in a class of medications called high-potency corticosteroids. This medication is used to treat a variety of skin and upper respiratory conditions.


Topical mometasone

A Prakash, P Benfield - Drugs, 1998 - Springer

… In the management of scalp psoriasis and psoriasis vulgaris, mometasone 0.1% applied once daily for 2 to 8 weeks was generally more effective than other glucocorticoids of similar or weaker potency such as betamethasone valerate 0.1%, fluocinolone acetonide 0.025%, …

Comparative safety and efficacy of topical mometasone furoate with other topical corticosteroids

F Spada, TM Barnes, KA Greive - Australasian Journal of …, 2018 - Wiley Online Library

Derivatives of hydrocortisone, such as mometasone furoate, a (2′) furoate‐17 ester with chlorine substitutions at positions 9 and 21, have been designed to improve efficacy and reduce the incidence of adverse effects. An extensive literature search of MEDLINE, Embase …

Long‐term, intermittent treatment of chronic hand eczema with mometasone furoate

NK Veien, P Ølholm Larsen… - British Journal of …, 1999 - Wiley Online Library

… Only one of 13 patients (8%) with dorsal hand eczema not treated with topical steroids completed the maintenance phase of the current study without recurrences. The effects of maintenance treatment were independent of the occupation of the patient, patch test reactivity and …

Efficacy and patient-reported outcomes of a new mometasone cream treating atopic eczema

T Ruzicka, C Willers, W Wigger-Alberti - Skin pharmacology and …, 2012 -

… Despite a number of shortcomings, topical corticosteroids are a mainstay in the treatment of atopic eczema (AE) and remain the recommended first-line therapy in the recent position paper of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology [1]. The choice of a …

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Mupirocin is used to treat or prevent infections in the nose due to certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. This medicine works by killing bacteria or preventing their growth.


Nasal lavage with mupirocin for the treatment of surgically recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis

B Uren, A Psaltis, PJ Wormald - The Laryngoscope, 2008 - Wiley Online Library

… to have equivalent in vitro efficacy as the standard mupirocin preparations. … The mupirocin containing solution was delivered via a commercially available 200 mL plastic nasal irrigation

In Vitro Activity of Mupirocin on Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and its Potential Implications in Chronic Rhinosinusitis

KR Ha, AJ Psaltis, AR Butcher, PJ Wormald… - The …, 2008 - Wiley Online Library

Mupirocin was capable of reducing biofilm mass by greater than 90% at concentrations of … Conclusions: The topical application of mupirocin via nasal irrigation may be useful in …

The effect of intraoperative mupirocin irrigation