Estrogen function in the body

  • Stimulates the production of choline acetyltransferase, an enzyme which prevents Alzheimer’s disease 1

  • Helps with fine motor skills 1

  • Enhances energy 2

  • Increases metabolic rate 2

  • Improves insulin sensitivity 2

  • Regulates body temperature 2

  • Helps prevent muscle damage 2

  • Helps maintain muscle 2

  • Improves sleep 2

  • Reduces risk of cataracts 3,4

  • Helps maintain the elasticity of arteries 5

  • Dilates small arteries 5

  • Increases blood flow 6

  • Inhibits platelet stickiness 7

  • Decreases the accumulation of plaque on arteries 7

  • Enhances magnesium uptake and utilization 8

  • Decreases wrinkles 9

  • Maintains the amount of collagen in the skin 9

  • Increases the water content of skin and is responsible for its thickness and softness 9

  • Decreases blood pressure 10

  • Reduces the overall risk of heart disease 11

  • Decreases LDL and increases HDL 12

  • Decreases lipoprotein(a) and lipids 13

  • Enhances the production of nerve‐growth factor 14

  • Improves mood 15

  • Helps maintain memory 15

  • Maintains bone density 16

  • Helps prevent glaucoma 17

  • Increases sexual desire 18

  • Reduces homocysteine 19

  • Protects against macular degeneration 20

  • Decreases risk of colon cancer 21

  • Helps prevent tooth loss 22


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[2] Mauvais-Jarvis F, Clegg DJ, Hevener AL. The role of estrogens in control of energy balance and glucose homeostasis. Endocr Rev. 2013 Jun;34(3):309-38. doi: 10.1210/er.2012-1055. Epub 2013 Mar 4. PMID: 23460719; PMCID: PMC3660717.

[3] Zetterberg M, Celojevic D. Gender and cataract--the role of estrogen. Curr Eye Res. 2015 Feb;40(2):176-90. doi: 10.3109/02713683.2014.898774. Epub 2014 Jul 2. PMID: 24987869.

[4] Klein BE, Klein R, Ritter LL. Is there evidence of an estrogen effect on age-related lens opacities? The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Arch Ophthalmol. 1994 Jan;112(1):85-91. doi: 10.1001/archopht.1994.01090130095025. PMID: 8285900.

[5] Crawford, S. and Johannes, C. (1999). The Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Disease in Postmenopausal Women. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 84(6), pp.1803-1806.

[6] Krejza J, Mariak Z, Huba M, Wolczynski S, Lewko J. Effect of endogenous estrogen on blood flow through carotid arteries. Stroke. 2001 Jan;32(1):30-6. doi: 10.1161/01.str.32.1.30. PMID: 11136910.

[7] Yukiko Nakano, Tetsuya Oshima, Ryoji Ozono, Atsushi Ueda, Yasuo Oue, Hideo Matsuura, Mitsuhiro Sanada, Koso Ohama, Kazuaki Chayama, Masayuki Kambe, Estrogen replacement suppresses function of thrombin stimulated platelets by inhibiting Ca2+ influx and raising cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Cardiovascular Research, Volume 53, Issue 3, February 2002, Pages 634–641

[8] Seelig MS. Interrelationship of magnesium and estrogen in cardiovascular and bone disorders, eclampsia, migraine and premenstrual syndrome. J Am Coll Nutr. 1993 Aug;12(4):442-58. doi: 10.1080/07315724.1993.10718335. PMID: 8409107.

[9] Shah MG, Maibach HI. Estrogen and skin. An overview. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2001;2(3):143-50. doi: 10.2165/00128071-200102030-00003. PMID: 11705091.

[10] Ashraf MS, Vongpatanasin W. Estrogen and hypertension. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2006 Oct;8(5):368-76. doi: 10.1007/s11906-006-0080-1. PMID: 16965722.

[11] Iorga A, Cunningham CM, Moazeni S, Ruffenach G, Umar S, Eghbali M. The protective role of estrogen and estrogen receptors in cardiovascular disease and the controversial use of estrogen therapy. Biol Sex Differ. 2017 Oct 24;8(1):33. doi: 10.1186/s13293-017-0152-8. PMID: 29065927; PMCID: PMC5655818.

[12] Palmisano BT, Zhu L, Stafford JM. Role of Estrogens in the Regulation of Liver Lipid Metabolism. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017;1043:227-256. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-70178-3_12. PMID: 29224098; PMCID: PMC5763482.

[13] Kim CJ, Jang HC, Cho DH, Min YK. Effects of hormone replacement therapy on lipoprotein(a) and lipids in postmenopausal women. Arterioscler Thromb. 1994 Feb;14(2):275-81. doi: 10.1161/01.atv.14.2.275. PMID: 8305420.

[14] Kanda N, Watanabe S. 17Beta-estradiol enhances the production of nerve growth factor in THP-1-derived macrophages or peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages. J Invest Dermatol. 2003 Oct;121(4):771-80. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1747.2003.12487.x. PMID: 14632195.

[15] Shors TJ, Leuner B. Estrogen-mediated effects on depression and memory formation in females. J Affect Disord. 2003 Mar;74(1):85-96. doi: 10.1016/s0165-0327(02)00428-7. PMID: 12646301; PMCID: PMC3374589.

[16] Imai Y, Youn MY, Kondoh S, Nakamura T, Kouzmenko A, Matsumoto T, Takada I, Takaoka K, Kato S. Estrogens maintain bone mass by regulating expression of genes controlling function and life span in mature osteoclasts. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009 Sep;1173 Suppl 1:E31-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04954.x. PMID: 19751412.

[17] Dewundara SS, Wiggs JL, Sullivan DA, Pasquale LR. Is Estrogen a Therapeutic Target for Glaucoma? Semin Ophthalmol. 2016;31(1-2):140-6. doi: 10.3109/08820538.2015.1114845. PMID: 26959139; PMCID: PMC4930553.

[18] Cappelletti M, Wallen K. Increasing women's sexual desire: The comparative effectiveness of estrogens and androgens. Horm Behav. 2016 Feb;78:178-93. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2015.11.003. Epub 2015 Nov 14. PMID: 26589379; PMCID: PMC4720522.

[19] Lakryc EM, Machado RB, Soares JM Jr, Fernandes CE 3rd, Baracat EC. What is the influence of hormone therapy on homocysteine and crp levels in postmenopausal women? Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2015 Feb;70(2):107-13. doi: 10.6061/clinics/2015(02)07. Erratum in: Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2015 Mar;70(3):228. PMID: 25789519; PMCID: PMC4424426.

[20] Edwards DR, Gallins P, Polk M, Ayala-Haedo J, Schwartz SG, Kovach JL, Spencer K, Wang G, Agarwal A, Postel EA, Haines JL, Pericak-Vance M, Scott WK. Inverse association of female hormone replacement therapy with age-related macular degeneration and interactions with ARMS2 polymorphisms. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Apr;51(4):1873-9. doi: 10.1167/iovs.09-4000. Epub 2009 Nov 20. PMID: 19933179; PMCID: PMC2868389.

[21] al-Azzawi F, Wahab M. Estrogen and colon cancer: current issues. Climacteric. 2002 Mar;5(1):3-14. PMID: 11974557.

[22] ohelle de S. Passos-Soares, Maria Isabel P. Vianna, Isaac S. Gomes-Filho, Simone S. Cruz, Maurício L. Barreto, Luis F. Adan, Cassiano K. Rösing, Soraya C. Trindade, Eneida M.M. Cerqueira, Frank A. Scannapieco. Association between osteoporosis treatment and severe periodontitis in postmenopausal women. Menopause, 2017; 1 DOI: 10.1097/GME.0000000000000830